SISTEM INTEGRASI PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN TERNAK SAPI POTONG DALAM RANGKA MENCAPAI SWASEMBADA DAGING
Oleh : MISNADI
The demand of protein from animal tend to increase coincide with the population growth, economic development, nutritional consciousness, and life style. Beef is one of the important source of protein in the Indonesian diet. At present there is a gap between domestic demand of protein and supply of livestock, to solve the problem Indonesia government has been decided to import either livestock or frozen meat. To minimize the gap , some invention should be done. Conversion of agricultural land to residential areas causing limitation of natural feed resources for livestock. Diminishing availability of agricultural land due to converted to residential areas could be the main couse of decreasing total production and population of livestock in Indonesia. In the year of 2020, consumtion of protein is expected to increase about 2-3 times more than the average current consumption of less than 2 kg/capita/year.The high demand for protein from meat is an opportunity for business development of local beef cattle therefore, efforts to increase livestock productivity needs to be done.
There is substantial potential for improved land use and farmer income through the integration between crops and animals. Integrated crop-livestock system especially estate crops such as Oil palm plantation is a potential alternative to suport the development of livestock agribusiness as well as estate crop agribusiness in Indonesia. The pattern of integration is very possible to be developed extensively in the available forage, and waste-product that can be used as cattle feed. With these efforts are expected that the problem of forage limitations can be overcome by utilizing agricultural waste, or fodder crop as a pasture.
Integration between crops commodities and livestocks showed significant added value to farmer income. Integration between oil palm plantations and beef cattle have a huge potential to increase beef population through the use of its by product and fodder for fed. Maintenance of beef cattle in the area of oil palm plantations is done by entering into a plantation area of livestock, livestock thereby able to consume forage around the area between oil palm plantation. Some of the benefits of livestock integration include savings in weeding cost, reduction of chemical fertilizers and income from the sale of livestock. In addition cattle also can be utilized as draf animal power carrying fresh fruit bunch with out any effect on reproduction performance. Some researchs showed that the average daily gain of cattle rearing under oil palm plantation with out supplementation about 0.6 kg/day.
The integration between oil palm plantation and cattle has known as management enviromentaly friendly because oil palm waste product that become a problem for the environment because the waste that can pollute the environment, can be used as main source of feed cattle. palm oil mill wastes that become a problem for the environment because the waste that can pollute the environment, can be resolved so that environmental pollution will be reduced. Oil palm waste product such as solid, sludge, palm kernel cakel (PKC) ,oil palm fronds (OPF), palm press fibre (PPF) and POME potential as beef cattle feed. PKC is widely used as the main. ingredient in rations for feedlot. Feedlot cattle e are normally fed up to 80% PKC with live weight gain (LWG) of 0.6-0.8 kg day-1 and 1- 1.2 kg day-1 crossbred cattle respectively. PKC at almost 100% has been fed to feedlot cattle with no negative effect provided that the supply of Ca and vitamins (inparticular, A, D and E) is sufficient to meet their requirements.
Cattle palm oil intergration can provide great benefits for livestock and crops, the benefits certainly derived from these two commodities. Cattle can be used as a means of transportation is the result of oil and cattle can certainly also for sale directly after the population increases. While the palm, the advantage is certainly derived from the fruit production and transportation cost savings achieved and fertilizer so it is expected to be able to increase farmers' income, increase the population so that self-sufficiency in beef cattle can be achieved, the benefits can be obtained from the sale of cattle and crops, but it gains unnoticed by the ranchers who are improving the quality of soil due to manure application. With increasing population, these cows are expected to be able to contribute in providing the domestic supply of meat so that imported beef can be resolved. From the above description can be concluded that with the integration of cattle with oil palm plantations have a huge potential to increase animal population througt the use of its by products for feed, Therefore, integration between cattle and oil plam plantation are expected to increase farmers' income, increasing population, so self-sufficient in beef cattle can be achieved. Hence the development of cattle and oil palm plantation to be followed by realistic in large commercial; scale must be supported by government policy.