Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Effect of Protein and Saccharomyces cereviciae culture Levels on Carcass Quality and Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens



Farahdiba, Urip Santoso* dan Kususiyah
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bengkulu University
Jalan Raya W. R. Supratman, Bengkulu 38371 A
e-mail: santosoburgo60@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of level of protein and Saccharomyces cereviciae culture on carcass quality and fat deposition. One hundred and thirty three broilers were distributed to 9 treatment groups of 3 replicates each. Factorial Completely Randomized Experimental Design was used. Two factors used n the present study were  three level of protein (15%, 18% and 21%) and three level of Saccharomyces cereviciae culture (0%, 0,5% and 1%). Expermental results showed that protein level of diet significantly affected  Fatty Liver Score (P<0,05), leg, breast and abdominal fat weights (P<0,01), but it had no effect (P>0,05) on carcass, wing and back weight. Level of  Saccharomyces cereviciae culture had no effect (P>0,05) on carcass, leg, wing weghts and Fatty Lver Score, but it significantly affected on breast, back and neck fat weight (P<0,05)  abdominal fat weight (P<0,01). No interaction was found. In conclusion, higher protein level improved carcass quality and reduced fat deposition. In addition, supplementation of 0.5% Saccharomyces cereviciae culture was effective to improve carcass quality and to reduce fat deposition. Supplementation of Saccharomyces cereviciae culture to low protein diet did not improve carcass quality and fat deposition.
Key wordsSaccharomyces cereviciae, protein, carcass quality, fat deposition

ABSTRAK
Peneltian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh aras protein dan ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada broiler. Sebanyak 135 ekor broiler dikelompokkan menjadi 9 kelompok perlakuan  dengan 3 ulangan berupa kandang litter. Masing-masing ulangan berisi 5 ekor broiler. Racangan Acak Lengkap dengan 2 faktor digunakan dalam penelitian ini, yaitu  tiga aras protein (15%, 18% dan 21%) dan tiga aras ragi (0%, 0,5% dan 1%). Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa  aras protein berpengaruh nyata terhadap  Fatty Liver Score (P<0,05), paha, dada dan lemak abdomen (P<0,01), tetapi berpengaruh tidak nyata (P>0,05) terhadap  karkas, sayap dan punggung. Hasil peneltian menunjukkan bahwa aras ragi tape berpengaruh tidak nyata (P>0,05) terhadap karkas, paha, sayap dan Fatty Lver Score, tetapi berpengaruh nyata terhadap  dada, punggung dan lemak leher (P<0,05)  dan sangat nyata terhadap  lemak abdominal (P<0,01). tdak terdapat interaksi antara aras protein dan aras ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa level protein yang lebih tinggi memperbaiki mutu karkas dan menurunkan deposisi lemak. Suplementasi ragi tape sebesar 0,5% efektif  dalam memperbaiki mutu karkas dan menurunkan deposisi lemak. Suplementasi ragi tape ke dalam pakan berprotein rendah tidak memperbaiki mutu karkas dan tidak menurunkan deposisi lemak pada broiler.
Kata kunci: Ragi tape, protein, mutu karkas, deposisi lemak

PENDAHULUAN
            Akhir-akhir ini ahli nutrisi unggas banyak tertarik perhatiannya untuk menurunkan kadar protein dalam pakan broiler. Ada beberapa alasan, yaitu: 1) pemberian pakan berprotein rendah akan menurunkan biaya pakan karena protein merupakan zat nutrisi yang termahal dalam pakan broiler; 2) pemberian pakan berprotein rendah akan menurunkan tingkat pencemaran akibat ekskresi nitrogen yang berlebihan (El-Hakim et al., 2009). Ekskresi nitrogen yang berlebihan akan dikonversikan antara lain menjadi  asam nitrat dan asam nitrit serta gas amonia. Asam nitrat dan asam nitrit dapat menurunkan pH tanah dan air, sehingga merupakan bahan pencemar tanah dan air. Gas amonia dapat mencemari udara sekitar yang dapat mengganggu kesehatan baik ternak maupun manusia terutama menyebabkan gangguan saluran pernafasan. Keuntungan lain bahwa terdapat bukti bahwa pemberian  protein rendah memberikan sumbangan terhadap perbaikan toleransi panas pada broiler (Furlan et al., 2004).
Namun demikian pemberian protein rendah dalam pakan menimbulkan beberapa kerugian. Pakan berprotein rendah pada broiler dapat meningkatkan deposisi lemak (Labussiere et al., 2008; Wood et al., 2004), menurunkan performans broiler, konsumsi pakan dan  efisiensi penggunaan pakan (Bregendahl et al., 2002; Djouvinov dan Mihaillov, 2005; Jiang et al., 2005; Pearl, 2002; Pescatore dan Gates, 2003), dan menurunkan hasil karkas (Bregendahl et al, 2002). Swennen et al. (2007a) menemukan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein rendah menurunkan retensi protein pada broiler. Hasil penelitian ini didukung oleh hasil penelitianTesseraud et al. (2003). Zhao et al. (2010) menemukan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein tinggi menurunkan deposisi lemak yang terutama dsebabkan oleh penurunan ekspresi gen lipogenik.
Broiler yang diberi pakan berprotein rendah menunjukkan retensi energi dalam bentuk lemak sehingga menghasilkan deposisi lemak abdominal meningkat pula (Collin et al., 2003; Swennen et al. (2004, 2006, 2007b). Yeh dan Leveille (1969) menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein rendah meningkatkan sintesis asam lemak  dalam liver dan aktivitas malic enzyme.  Tanaka et al. (1983) menemukan bahwa peningkatan level protein dalam pakan menurunkan lipogenesis in vitro dalam liver yang dibarengi oleh perubahan aktivitas enzim lipogenik. Donaldson (1985) menunjukkan bahwa lipogenesis in vitro dan aktivitas enzim acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase  meningkat dengan pemberian pakan dengan rasio energi dan protein yang lebih tinggi (yang artinya pakan rendah protein). Beberapa penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya pembesaran liver disebabkan pemberian pakan berprotein rendah (Suthama et al., 1991; Collin et al., 2003; Swennen et al., 2005, 2006), yang diduga merefleksikan deposisi lemak yang tinggi dalam liver, sebagai organ utama sintesis asam lemak pada ayam (Leveille et al., 1975).
            Oleh sebab itu, pemberian pakan berprotein rendah pada broiler perlu diimbangi oleh bahan pakan lain untuk menghambat laju pertumbuhan lemak.  Santoso et al. (1995, 2001) menemukan bahwa suplementasi mkroorganisme efektf mampu menurunkan deposisi lemak pada broler. Onifade et al. (1999) menemukan bahwa suplementasi Saccharomyces cereviciae (ragi tape) memperbaiki performans, mutu karkas dan lemak abdomnal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh ragi tape dan level protein terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada broiler. Sahin dan Yardimci (2009) menemukan bahwa suplementasi kefr memperbaiki karakteristik karkas angsa.

MATERI DAN METODE
            Dua ratus ekor ayam broiler (strain Arbor Acres) umur satu dipelihara selama 1 minggu pada kandang litter. Suhu kandang diatur +  32,5oC. Ketika broiler baru tiba, mereka diberi air gula untuk mencegah stress. Pada umur  8 hari, semua broiler ditimbang dan diseleksi. Sebanyak 135 ekor broiler dikelompokkan menjadi 9 kelompok perlakuan  dengan 3 ulangan berupa kandang litter. Masing-masing ulangan berisi 5 ekor broiler. Racangan Acak Lengkap dengan 2 faktor digunakan dalam penelitian ini, yaitu  tiga aras protein (15%, 18% dan 21%) dan tiga aras ragi (0%, 0,5% dan 1%). Adapun ke sembilan kelompok perlakuan tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
1)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 15% dan ragi tape 0%
2)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 15% dan ragi 0,5%
3)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 15% dan ragi 1%
4)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 18% dan ragi tape 0%
5)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 18% dan ragi tape 0,5%
6)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 18% dan ragi tape 1%
7)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 21% dan ragi tape 0%
8)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 21% dan ragi tape 0,5%
9)      broiler diberi pakan berprotein 21% dan ragi tape 1%
Komposisi pakan yang digunakan tertera dalam Tabel 1. Pakan  dan air minum diberikan ad libitum.
Pada umur 42 hari, 6 ekor broiler untuk masing-masing kelompok perlakuan diseleksi dan disembelih. Karkas dan bagiannya dipisahkan dan ditimbang. Selain itu, lemak leher dan lemak abdominal dipisahkan dan ditimbang. Fatty Liver Score dinilai dengan membandingkan warna hati dengan warna standard menurut Santoso et al. (2004).
            Semua data dianalisis varians  dan jika berbeda nyata diuji lanjut dengan DMRT.
HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN
Pengaruh aras protein terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada ayam broiler tertera pada Tabel 2. Hasil penelitan menunjukkan bahwa  aras protein berpengaruh nyata terhadap  Fatty Liver Score (P<0,05), paha, dada dan lemak abdomen (P<0,01), tetapi berpengaruh tidak nyata (P>0,05) terhadap  karkas, sayap dan punggung. Hasil uji lanjut menunjukkan bahwa  aras proten 15% mempunyai paha  lebih berat dari pada aras protein  21% (P<0,01).  Aras proten 21% mempunyai dada yang lebh berat darpada aras protein 15% atau 18% (P<0,01). Aras protein 21% mempunyai lemak abdominal (P<0,01) dan Fatty Liver Score (P<0,05) yang lebih rendah jika dbandingkan dengan aras proten 15% ataupun 18%.
Hasil penelitian ini didukung oleh  Labussiere et al., 2008 danWood et al., 2004 yang menemukan  pakan berprotein rendah pada broiler  meningkatkan deposisi lemak. dan menurunkan hasil karkas (Bregendahl et al., 2002). Swennen et al. (2007a) menemukan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein rendah menurunkan retensi protein pada broiler. Hasil penelitian ini didukung oleh hasil penelitianTesseraud et al. (2003). Nguyen et al. (2010)  juga menemukan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein lebih tinggi memperbaiki mutu karkas pada ayam periode tumbuh.
Broiler yang diberi pakan berprotein rendah menunjukkan retensi energi dalam bentuk lemak sehingga menghasilkan deposisi lemak abdominal meningkat pula (Collin et al., 2003; Swennen et al. (2004, 2006, 2007b). Yeh dan Leveille (1969) menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan berprotein rendah meningkatkan sintesis asam lemak  dalam liver dan aktivitas malic enzyme.  Tanaka et al. (1983) menemukan bahwa peningkatan level protein dalam pakan menurunkan lipogenesis in vitro dalam liver yang dibarengi oleh perubahan aktivitas enzim lipogenik. Donaldson (1985) menunjukkan bahwa lipogenesis in vitro dan aktivitas enzim acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase yang merupakan enzim pembatas bagi sintesis asam lemak, meningkat dengan pemberian pakan dengan rasio energi dan protein yang lebih tinggi (yang artinya pakan rendah protein). Beberapa penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya pembesaran liver disebabkan pemberian pakan berprotein rendah (Suthama et al., 1991; Collin et al., 2003; Swennen et al., 2005, 2006), yang diduga merefleksikan deposisi lemak yang tinggi dalam liver, sebagai organ utama sintesis asam lemak pada ayam. Nawaz et al. (2006) melaporkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh level protein dan/atau energy terhadap lemak abdominal pada broiler. Namun,  Jianlin et al. (2004) melaporkan terdapatnya peningkatan lemak abdominal sejalan dengan penurunan level protein pakan.
Pengaruh aras ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak tertera pada Tabel 3.  Hasil peneltian menunjukkan bahwa aras rag tape berpengaruh tidak nyata (P>0,05) terhadap karkas, paha, sayap dan Fatty Lver Score, tetapi berpengaruh nyata terhadap  dada, punggung dan lemak leher (P<0,05)  dan sangat nyata terhadap  lemak abdominal (P<0,01).  Uji lanjut menunjukkan bahwa   aras ragi 0% mempunyai dada yang lebih rendah (P<0,05) dan lemak leher yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05) jika dbandngkan dengan 0,5% atau 1% rag tape. Aras ragi tape 1% mempunyai  punggung (P<0,05) dan lemak abdominal (P<0,01) yang lebh rendah  daripada aras 0% atau 0,5% ragi tape. 
            Bidura et al. (2002) menemukan bahwa   ragi tape menurunkan lemak abdominal dan kolesterol dalam daging itik. Karaglu dan Durdag (2005) menemukan bahwa suplementasi ragi tape tidak memperbaiki mutu karkas pada ayam broiler. Paryad dan Mahmoudi (2008) menemukan bahwa suplementasi ragi tape memperbaiki mutu karkas pada ayam broiler. Suplementasi Saccharomyces cerevisiae meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan berat karkas serta menuurunkan lemak abdominal pada ayam broiler (Onifade et al., 1999). Turunnya deposisi lemak oleh ragi tape diduga disebabkan oleh turunnya sintesis asam lemak.  Santoso et al. (1995, 2001) menunjukkan bahwa  turunnya deposisi lemak oleh kultur Bacillus subtilis disebabkan antara lain oleh turunnya aktivitas enzim Acetyl-CoA carboxylase di hati, suatu enzim pembatas pada sintesis asam lemak.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat interaksi antara aras protein dan aras ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak (Tabel 4). Ini menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi ragi tape ke dalam pakan berprotein rendah tidak memperbaiki mutu karkas dan tidak  menurunkan deposisi lemak pada ayam broiler.
SIMPULAN
            Dapat disimpulkan bahwa level protein yang lebih tinggi memperbaiki mutu karkas dan menurunkan deposisi lemak. Suplementasi ragi tape sebesar 0,5% efektif  dalam memperbaiki mutu karkas dan menurunkan deposisi lemak. Suplementasi ragi tape ke dalam pakan berprotein rendah tidak memperbaiki mutu karkas dan tidak menurunkan deposisi lemak pada broiler.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Bidura, . G. N. G. dan . I. G. P. B. Suastina. 2002. Pengaruh suplementas ragi tape dalam ransum terhadap efisiensi penggunaan ransum. Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan, 5: 6-11.
Bregendahl, K. J., J. L. Sell  and D. R. Zimmersnan. 2002. Effect of low protein diets on growth performance and body composition of broiler chicks. Poultry Sci., 81: 1156-1167.
Collin, A., R. D. Malheiros, V. M. B. Moraes, P. Van As, V. M. Darras, M. Tauois, E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2003. Effects of dietary macronutrient content on energy metabolism and uncoupling protein mRNA expression in broiler chickens. Bri. J.  Nutr., 90: 261-269.
Djouvinov, D. and R. Mihailov. 2005. Effect of low protein level on performnace of growing and laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Bulgarian J. Vet. Med., 8 (2): 91-98.
Donaldson, W. E. 1985. Lipogenesis and body fat in chicks: Effects of calorie-protein ratio and dietary fat. Poultry Sci., 64: 1191-1204.
El-Hakim, Abd A. S., G. Cherian and M. N. Ali. 2009. Use of organic acid, herbs and their combination to improve the utilization of commercial low protein broiler diets. Int. J,. Poultry Sci., 8 (1): 14-20.
Furlan, R. L., F. Fiko De de, P. S. Rosa and M. Macari. 2004. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress condition? Brazilian J. Poultry Sci., 6 (2): 71-79.
Jiang, Q., P. W. Waldroup and C. A. Fritts. 2005. Improving the utilization of diets low in crude protein for broiler chickens. 1. Evaluation of special amino acid supplementation to diets low in crude protein. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 4 (3): 115-122.
Jianlin, S.F., C.A. Fritts, D.J. Burnham and P.W. Waldroup, 2004. Extent to which crude protein may be reduced in corn-soybean meal broiler diets through amino acid supplementation. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 46-50.
Karaglu, M. dan H. Durdag. 2005. The influence of probiotic (Saccharomyces cereviciae) supplementation and different slaughter  age on the performance, slaughter and carcass properties of broilers.  Int. J. Poult. Sci., 4: 309-316.
Labussiere, E.,  S. Dubois, J. Van Milgen, G. Bertrand  and J. Noblet. 2008. Effects of dietary crude protein on protein and fat deposition in milk-fed vel calces. J. dairy Sci., 91: 4741-4754.

Nawaz, H., T. Mushtaq and M. Yaqoob, 2006. Effect of varying levels of energy and protein on live performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. J. Poult. Sci., 43: 388-393.

Nguyen, T. V., C. Bunchasak, dan S. Chantsavang. 2010. Effects of dietary protein and energy on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Betong chickens during growing period. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 468-472.

Onifade AA, Odunsi AA, Babatunde GM, Olorede BR, Muma E. 1999. Comparison of the supplemental effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and antibiotics in low-protein and high-fibre diets fed to broiler chickens. Arch Tierernahr. 1999;52(1):29-39

Paryad, A dan M. Mahmoudi. 2008. Effect of different level of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae) on performance, blood constituents and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. African J. Agric. Res., 3: 835-845. 
Pearl, G. G. 2002. The future of animal protein in poultry diets. Multi-State Poultry Meeting. May 14-16, 2002.
Pescatore, A and R. gates. 2003. Reducing the nitrogen load and emissions in poultry houses. Multi-State Meeting. May 20-23, 2003.
Sahin, E. H. dan M. Yardimci. 2009. Effects of kefir as a probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics in geese (Anser anser). J.  Anim.   Vet.  Adv., 8: 562-567 DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2009.562.567.
Santoso, U., K. Tanaka dan S. Ohtani. 1995. Effect of dried Bacillus subtilis culture on growth, body composition and hepatc lipogenic enzyme activity in female broiler chicks. Bri. J. Nutr., 74: 523-529.
Santoso, U., K. Tanaka, S. Ohtani dan M. Sakaida. 2001. Effect  of fermented product from Bacillus subtlis on feed conversion efficiency, lipid accumulation and ammonia production in broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. anim. Sci., 14: 333-337.
Santoso, U., Y. Fenita dan W. Piliang. 2004. Penggunaan Ekstrak Daun Katuk sebagai Feed Additive untuk Memproduksi Meat Designer. Laporan Penelitian Hibah Pekerti. Universitas Bengkulu. Bengkulu.
Suthama, N., K. Hayashi, M. Toyomizu and Y. Tomita. 1991. Interactions of exogenous thyroxine and dietary protein levels on growth, and muscle  protein metabolism in broiler chcikens. Jpn. Poultry Sci. 28: 1-10.
Swennen, Q., G. P. J. Janssens, A. Collin, E. Le Bihan-Duval, K. Verbeke, E. Decuypere and J. Byuse. 2006.  Diet-induced thermogenesis and glucose oxidation in broiler chickens:  Influence genotype and diet composition. Poultry Sci., 85: 731-742.
Swennen, Q., G. P. J. Janssens,  E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2004. Effects of substitution between fat and protein on feed intake and its regulatory mechanisms in broiler chickens: energy and protein metaboleism and diet-induced thermogenesis.  Poultry Sci., 83: 1997-2004.
Swennen, Q., G. P. J. Janssens, S. Millet, G. Vansant, E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2005. Effect of substitution between fat and protein on food intake and its regulatory mechanism in broiler chickens: Endocrine functioning and intermediary metabolism. Poultry Sci., 84: 1051-1057.
Swennen, Q., E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2007a. Implications of dietary macronutrients for growth and metabilsm in broiler chickens. World’s Poultry Sci. 63: 541-556.
Swennen, Q., C. Laroye, G. P. J. Janssens, K. Verbeke, E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2007b. Rate of metabolic decarboxylation  of leucine as assessed by a L[1-13C1] leusine breath test combined with indirect calorimetry of broiler chickens fed isocaloric diets with different protein:fat ratio. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 91 (7-8): 347-354.
Tanaka, K., S. Ohtani and K. Shigeno. 1983.  Effect of increasing dietary energy on hepatic lipogenesis in growing chickens. II. Increasing energy by fat or protein supplementation. Poultry Sci., 62: 452-458.
Tesseraud, S., R. A. E. Pym, E. Le Bihan-Duval and M. J. Duclos.. 2003. Respone of broilers selected on carcass quality to dietary protein supply: live performance, muscle development and circulating insuline-like growth factors (IGF-I and –II). Poultry Sci., 82: 1011-1016.
Wood, J. D., G. R. Nute, R. I. Richardson, F. M. Whittington, O. Southwood, G. Plastow, R. Monsbridge, N. da Costa and K. C. Chang. 2004. Effects of breed, diet and muscle on fat deposition and eating quality in pigs. Meat Sci., 67 (4): 651-667.
Yeh, Y. Y. and G. A. Leveille. 1969. Effect of dietary protein on hepatic lipogenesis in the growing chick. J. Nutr., 98: 356-366.
Zhao, S., J. Wang, X. Song, X. Zhang, C. Ge dan S. Gao. 2010. Impact of dietary protein on lipid metabolism-related gene expression in porcine adipose tissue. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010, 7:6doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-6.

 



Tabel 1. Komposisi Pakan Percobaan

Bahan Pakan
Aras Protein

15%
18%
21%
Jagung, %
59,44
55,69
52,00
Dedak halus, %
22,87
18,12
13,30
Tepung ikan, %
10,00
10,00
10,00
Bungkil kedelai, %
7,19
15,69
24,20
Tepung tulang, %
Komposisi Gizi Pakan
0,50
0,50
0,50

Protein, %
15
18
21
ME (kkal/kg)
2882,93
2883,05
2884,24



Tabel 2. Pengaruh aras proten terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada broiler
Variabel
15%
18%
21%
P
Karkas , %
55,79
60,12
61,05
ns
Paha, %
35,25b
33,87ab
31,79a
**
Dada, %
24,77a
25,81a
30,25b
**
Sayap, %
27,38
27,25
25,53
ns
Punggung, %
27,38
27,25
25,53
ns
Lemak  abdomen, %
1,91c
1,65b
1,59a
**
Lemak leher, %
0,59
0,33
0,44
ns
Fatty Liver Score
2,47b
2,25b
1,09a
*
Superskrip yang berbeda pada baris yang sama menunjukkan berbeda nyata; *= P<0,05,
 **= P<0,01, ns= non significant, P = probabilitas


Tabel 3. Pengaruh aras ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada broiler
Variabel
0% Ragi
0,5% Ragi
1% Ragi
P
Karkas , %
57,16
58,59
59,76
ns
Paha, %
33,90
33,87
33,69
ns
Dada, %
25,20a
27,84b
27,84b
*
Sayap, %
12,63
26,29
25,62
ns
Punggung, %
28,26b
26,29ab
25,62a
*
Lemak  abdomen, %
1,90b
1,88b
1,62a
**
Lemak leher, %
0,69b
0,36a
0,38a
*
Fatty Liver Score
2,44
2,14
2,06
ns
Superskrip yang berbeda pada baris yang sama menunjukkan berbeda nyata; *= P<0,05,
 **= P<0,01, ns= non significant, P = probabilitas


Tabel 4. Pengaruh aras protein dan ragi tape terhadap mutu karkas dan deposisi lemak pada ayam broiler
Variabel
15% Protein
18% Protein
21% Protein
P

0% Ragi
0,5% Ragi
1% Ragi
0% Ragi
0,5% Ragi
1% Ragi
0% Ragi
0,5% Ragi
1% Ragi

Karkas, %
55,24
58,33
59,13
60,03
58,50
61,48
59,71
58,94
58,67
ns
Paha, %
35,10
34,65
35,99
34,23
36,01
32,23
31,72
30,95
32,72
ns
Dada, %
21,29
25,57
26,81
24,63
26,01
26,81
28,95
29,87
29,87
ns
Sayap, %
12,14
12,32
12,12
12,75
11,59
15,77
13,14
12,77
12,77
ns
Punggung, %
29,36
27,62
25,17
28,38
26,26
27,04
27,03
24,91
24,65
ns
Lemak abdomen, %
2,81
2,07
2,06
1,93
1,79
1,81
1,99
1,01
1,76
ns
Lemak leher, %
0,85
0,51
0,42
0,51
0,17
0,30
0,49
0,41
0,43
ns
FLS
2,69
2,33
2,38
2,50
2,12
2,13
2,13
1,98
1,68
ns
ns = non signfcant; FLS = fatty liver score


* Surat menyurat ditujukan kepada Prof. Urip Santoso

17 comments:

Anonymous said...

Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is really
informative. I'm gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future. Lots of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!
Feel free to visit my website : how to download movies

Anonymous said...

Hi I am so happy I found your site, I really found you by error, while I was browsing on
Bing for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like to
say cheers for a fantastic post and a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have
time to read through it all at the moment but I have saved
it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time
I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the fantastic b.
Look into my web blog : Free iphone

Anonymous said...

This information is worth everyone's attention. When can I find out more?
Here is my web-site : elitecigarettestore.com

Anonymous said...

Hi there I am so grateful I found your weblog, I really found you by error, while I was researching on
Aol for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like to say
kudos for a marvelous post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I
don't have time to read through it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the superb job.
My blog post ... my computer is slow

Anonymous said...

Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote
the book in it or something. I think that you can do with some
pics to drive the message home a little bit, but
other than that, this is magnificent blog. A great read.
I'll certainly be back.
Have a look at my webpage - http://bostaditurkiet.net

Anonymous said...

This design is incredible! You obviously know how to keep a reader amused.
Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start
my own blog (well, almost...HaHa!) Wonderful job.
I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
Too cool!
Also visit my weblog ... Ferieleilighet Tyrkia

Anonymous said...

Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?
My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing
a few months of hard work due to no backup. Do you have any
methods to stop hackers?
Feel free to visit my web blog :: lägenhet i alanya

Anonymous said...

I think the admin of this web page is genuinely working hard for his website, since here every
information is quality based data.
Here is my website : Villa Bodrumista

Anonymous said...

When someone writes an piece of writing he/she retains
the plan of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it.
Thus that's why this post is great. Thanks!
Feel free to surf my web-site : http://immobilienalanya.net

Anonymous said...

Hey There. I discovered your blog the use of msn. That is an extremely
well written article. I'll make sure to bookmark it and return to learn more of your useful info. Thank you for the post. I'll certainly comeback.
Also see my site > http://immobilienalanya.net/immobilien-bodrum/

Anonymous said...

It's truly very complicated in this full of activity life to listen news on TV, therefore I just use internet for that reason, and take the most recent news.
My web blog :: laser tattoo removal cost

Anonymous said...

Can I simply say what a comfort to uncover an individual
who actually knows what they are talking about on the internet.
You definitely understand how to bring an
issue to light and make it important. More people really need to look at this and understand this side of
your story. I can't believe you're not more popular
given that you surely possess the gift.
Review my blog post ... how to get rid of blemishes

Anonymous said...

Good day! I could have sworn I've been to this site before but after reading through some of the post I realized it's new to me.
Nonetheless, I'm definitely delighted I found it and I'll be book-marking and
checking back frequently!
Stop by my web page ... how to get rid of acne fast

Anonymous said...

That's why an election that started out as a mere annoyance may pull the curtain down on a political era. [url=http://officialcanadagoosesoutlet.ca]canada goose sale[/url] Some geographic areas in India include hot deserts, glaciers, humid tropical regions, rain forests, mountains, and seas in the Indian Ocean territories. It was named after the T'sooke tribe that lived and continues to live there. Too complex for the condenced movie version that losses a ton story arcs in its effort to put the whole saga in one movie..
The best known is Madison Mitchell, and he is 70. [url=http://www.icanadagooseca.com]canada goose jackets[/url] Their prices are fantastic and the quality awesome. [url=http://officialcanadagoosesoutlet.ca]canada goose outlet[/url]
[url=http://flyballbags.com]canada goose toronto factory[/url] The next most common event was procedure-related injuries, at 17%.(40)In a New England Journal of Medicine study, an alarming one in four patients suffered observable side effects from the more than 3.34 billion prescription drugs filled in 2002.(41) One of the doctors who produced the study was interviewed by Reuters and commented, "With these 10-minute appointments, it's hard for the doctor to get into whether the symptoms are bothering the patients."(42) William Tierney, who editorialized on the New England Journal study, said given the increasing number of powerful drugs available to care for the aging population, the problem will only get worse. [url=http://www.onlinebeatsbydreoutlet.com]beats by dre store nyc[/url]

Anonymous said...

Communicate with them to let them know when you'll be there to pick it up, and arrive when you say you will.. [url=http://officialcanadagoosesoutlet.ca]canada goose parka sale[/url] fiscal fraud or criminal allegations). The most obvious way is, of course, through the hauntingly visceral descriptions of Kiley maiming the baby water buffalo. Pat has no idea if all the fraud is out of the market.
They don't want the condition of this planet to make the news and motivate people to stop the rapine and destruction of it. [url=http://www.icanadagooseca.com]canada goose toronto[/url] Whats even more is that trilby hats can match almost any outfit that you have on, whether you want to add a touch of glamour to your suit or dress up the jeans and shirt outfit that you are wearing.. [url=http://officialcanadagoosesoutlet.ca]canada goose whistler parka[/url]
[url=http://flyballbags.com]canada goose on sale[/url] wholesale jordan Tomes Footwear Mindful observation you will find in the outer finish of the term are from the jordan emblem, composed of sixteen, there is in the conclude on the 3 / 4 in fee of the window air-cushion, in fact, are in fee of the submit in order to tie in with the Blow-molser Air cushion at in the conclude to include a layer of the identical layer, the general impression of outstanding. [url=http://www.onlinebeatsbydreoutlet.com]replica beats by dre headphones for sale[/url]

Anonymous said...

I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog.
Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog
like this one today.
Also visit my web-site - revenue sharing program

Anonymous said...

These are in fact fantastic ideas in on the topic of blogging.

You have touched some nice factors here. Any way keep up wrinting.
Also visit my blog ... how do i get rid of acne scars

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...